Science and Technology of Advanced Materials - latest papers

Latest articles for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
IOPscience
  1. Turning an organic semiconductor into a low-resistance material by ion implantation
    We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation on thin films of pentacene, carried out to investigate the efficacy of this process in the fabrication of organic electronic devices. Two different ions, Ne and N, have been implanted and compared, to assess the effects of different reactivity within the hydrocarbon matrix. Strong modification of the electrical conductivity, stable in time, is observed following ion implantation. This effect is significantly larger for N implants (up to six orders of magnitude), which are shown to introduce stable charged species within the hydrocarbon matrix, not only damage as is the case for Ne implants. Fully operational pentacene thin film transistors have also been implanted and we show how a controlled N ion implantation process can induce stable modifications in the threshold voltage, without affecting the device performance.
  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of anomalous eutectic in laser remelted Ni-30 wt.% Sn alloy
    Laser remelting has been performed on Ni-30 wt.% Sn hypoeutectic alloy. An anomalous eutectic formed at the bottom of the molten pool when the sample was remelted thoroughly. 3D morphologies of the α -Ni and Ni 3 Sn phases in the anomalous eutectic region were obtained and investigated using serial sectioning reconstruction technology. It is found that the Ni 3 Sn phase has a continuous interconnected network structure and the α -Ni phase is distributed as separate particles in the anomalous eutectic, which is consistent with the electron backscatter diffraction pattern examinations. The α -Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic are supersaturated with Sn element as compared with the equilibrium phase diagram. Meanwhile, small wavy lamella eutectics coexist with anomalous eutectics. The Trivedi–Magnin–Kurz model was used to estimate undercooling with lamellar spacing. The results suggest that the critical undercooling found in undercooling soli...
  3. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design
    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful f...
  4. Adsorption of amino acids by fullerenes and fullerene nanowhiskers
    We have investigated the adsorption of some amino acids and an oligopeptide by fullerene (C 60 ) and fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs). C 60 and FNWs hardly adsorbed amino acids. Most of the amino acids used have a hydrophobic side chain. Ala and Val, with an alkyl chain, were not adsorbed by the C 60 or FNWs. Trp, Phe and Pro, with a cyclic structure, were not adsorbed by them either. The aromatic group of C 60 did not interact with the side chain. The carboxyl or amino group, with the frame structure of an amino acid, has a positive or negative charge in solution. It is likely that the C 60 and FNWs would not prefer the charged carboxyl or amino group. Tri-Ala was adsorbed slightly by the C 60 and FNWs. The carboxyl or amino group is not close to the center of the methyl group of Tri-Ala. One of the methyl groups in Tri-Ala would interact with the aromatic structure of the C 60 and FNWs. We compared our results wi...
  5. A label-free G-quadruplex-based mercury detection assay employing the exonuclease III-mediated cleavage of T–Hg 2+ –T mismatched DNA
    We report herein the use of an exonuclease III and G-quadruplex probe to construct a G-quadruplex-based luminescence detection platform for Hg 2+ . Unlike common DNA-based Hg 2+ detection methods, when using the dsDNA probe to monitor the hairpin formation, the intercalation of the dsDNA probe may be influenced by the distortion of dsDNA. This ‘mix-and-detect’ methodology utilized the G-quadruplex probe as the signal transducer and is simple, rapid, convenient to use and can detect down to 20 nM of Hg 2+ .

Informazioni aggiuntive